Tips On Picking The Best Futon Covers

sis-futon-coverIf you are planning to buy some futon cover for your furnishings like couches or mattresses for example, then you will need to perform some measuring before buying one. Although you are thinking that this just adds up to the total cost of time and effort on your part when you can just choose a design and grab some covers on the nearest department store. However, you might find this one necessary because if you don’t, there is a ninety percent chance that you will choose a cover that is either too large or too small for the exact size of what you are going to cover. Some people don’t know the fact the futon covers come in different sizes because they look too much alike especially on their packaging. What they don’t know is that on every package for these covers, a corresponding size tag is printed to identify the kind of shape and size it has.

What Futon Size Are You Trying To Cover?

This is the reason why you will need to measure the furniture you ought to cover. Get a measuring tape and start by measuring the length and the width or the other way around. There are three types of covers, and these are twin size, full size, and queen size covers. Your measurement will identify the ones you will need. Take the size of a full-size futon cover. The dimensions are 54 inches in width and 75 inches in length. If you have measurements close to that, then you should definitely buy that size for your convenience. Remember that the bigger the size, the pricier it is, so decide if you want to settle for a bigger cost than the one you really need. Futon mattress covers also come in different designs. You can choose between dozens of designs offered in the market today. There are some designs that fit one’s personality alongside the space of living that you have.

What Makes a Good Futon Mattress Cover

You need a new futon mattress cover, but there are a lot to choose from, how do you know which futon mattress covers are worth the investment. Below are a few things to take into consideration before you buy:brown futon mattress

  1. Consider the thread count. As a minimum, you should buy a cover that has a 200 thread count. 400 to 500 thread count it even better. The higher the thread count, the higher the quality of the futon mattress cover and the longer it would be expected to last.
  2. Size is the next important factor. A lot of futons are queen size, but they also con in double, twin, and full. Sometimes they will even come in a custom size. It is important to know what size you need before you buy a mattress cover.
  3. The next fact to consider is the name brand and the color of the cover. Cheap futon covers may bleed when they are washed. Go with a reputable company whenever you can. A lot of online retailers will offer satisfaction guaranteed, but it is important to remember that a guarantee is only ever as reliable as the person given it because it is difficult to enforce. Also, make sure that the cover you get matches with your room or bedroom décor.


Looking at 3 or 4 stores will help you determine what to expect as far as pricing is concerned. Occasionally clearance items can be a great deal, but you will have less selection. Although prices don’t vary much throughout the year, occasionally, they will drop a little over Christmas or just after the new year. It depends on the online availability and competition from buyers and sellers. Making the right decision and buying a quality futon cover is a decision you can be happy within the long run. Happy Shopping!

Guide to Find the Cheap Futon Mattress Of High Quality

In tough financial times, a lot of people try to cut costs when they can so it’s no wonder they want to know where to find a cheap futon that’s still of good quality.  Well, before I get into that, I must say there are a few things you have to consider before buying a futon mattress. Essentially it is very important that you understand exactly what the futon is going to be used for and how much it’s going to be used. These two points can essentially determine whether you can get away with a cheap futon or if you need to spend the extra money on the best futon your budget can possibly afford you.  If you’re looking for something that can suffice as your main sleeping surface as well as a couch, you will probably want a better quality, more expensive futon that’s going to last you for years to come.  Conversely, if you’re just looking for something that will work both ways but primarily serves as a sofa, you can probably afford to go a little on the cheaper side. Understanding this will help better determine the type of futon you actually need versus what you want to pay.

It’s also important (to some, not all) to have the appropriate design that matches and fits into the living space the futon will eventually occupy. Make sure you do the measurements and ask yourself what type of design or color best fits your personal tastes. Do as much as or as little as you like to meet your futon needs, but please, understand what those needs are first.

Money is often the most important thing to consider when purchasing something for your home but let’s not try to make this too difficult of a purchase. Based on your needs, read this cheap futon buying guide and best picks futon mattress list on Foamglobes, set yourself a reasonable budget that can still offer you a decent futon mattress and stick to it! Now that you know exactly what it is you need and what are looking for, you can start searching for that futon.

There are several different places to look for good quality cheap futon mattresses but finding the right places may be a task in itself. Here are a few tips that should make your futon shopping experience more pleasurable and efficient:

Buy Online

I find browsing a good online store like Amazon is an excellent way to narrow your search. You can check prices, read reviews, gain knowledge on what makes a good futon (hopefully you’ve found this here!), get an overall better perspective on what’s out there, and even buy one right online. Either way, a great medium for the hunt and probably the most efficient.

Buy Used

Sometimes finding the right new futon at the right price is difficult. Buying a lightly used futon can be a great alternative. You could ask your friends or family if they know of anyone selling one or look for one at yard sales, thrift stores, newspaper classifieds, or sites that sell used furniture. Buying used could end up saving you a lot of money but be sure to exercise caution and know exactly what you’re buying.  Most important is the age of the futon (ideally less than 2 years old), how often it was used, whether it was exposed to pets, and whether it was kept in a well-ventilated area.

Furniture Stores

Often times new furniture stores to have storage rooms with previous models or discount futon inventory. Ask the furniture salesman if they have anything you could look at. There just might be something waiting for you behind closed doors. There are also discount furniture stores that sell only discount items that still might be of great quality. Look online to find out just where these stores are and see if they have something that fits your needs. Some furniture stores may also negotiate a price, let you lease or even make monthly payments if the product is not in your immediate price range.

Places to Avoid

When looking for a quality futon for an affordable price, there will be places that do not meet the quality criteria. For example, you should avoid large box stores when buying large pieces of furniture including futons. Furniture from large chain stores can often suffer from poor design, be very uncomfortable, and be generally low in quality. They may seem like good value at the time but in the long run, will wind up costing you more as you’ll likely need to replace it after a few years.  So do yourself a favor and don’t waste your time or money at these places.  Remember as well to consider the cost of gasoline to get to some of these stores; don’t drive 200 miles to get a deal on a $200 futon!

Hopefully, this post helps outline the fact that while a finding a decent affordable futon is good, buying one just because it’s cheap is not.  Consider all the factors involved before laying down your hard-earned cash.  You might think you’re saving money buying a cheap futon mattress but if the quality isn’t there, you’ll be kicking yourself for years to come instead what you should be doing: sleeping.

The Cheap and High-Quality Futon Sofa Bed – Versatility At Its Best

I truly believe one of the greatest inventions in furniture is the futon sofa bed; being so versatile, they really are an ideal choice for anyone who needs extra sleeping space but is lacking extra living space. Comfortable and affordable, futon sofa beds come in a variety of styles and materials to seamlessly blend with any decor. Here are the three main traits I like to look for in a futon sofa:Cheap and High-Quality Futon Sofa Bed


For those individuals who are eco-minded like me, futon mattresses come in a wide range of organic choices. Natural cotton and wool mattress pads are created from renewable resources. A soy-based foam core provides support with yet another renewable resource, proving that one need not sacrifice comfort in order to reduce one’s carbon footprint. As these are all-natural fibers, when the useful lifespan of the mattress is over, the mattress is biodegradable and will not take up room in a landfill.

Organic futon covers complete the eco-friendly ensemble without sacrificing comfort or beauty. Natural woven bamboo is an excellent choice, coming in a range of soft, creamy shades. Pure cotton with a high-thread count looks beautiful in its natural cream, or it can be dyed into any pattern or hue with a variety of natural dyes and water-based pigments.


One of the most important things to ensure is that the futon sofa bed has a sturdy and supporting frame. Traditional beds have a mattress and box springs to support the weight. Futons do not. The frame should be solid and have a sufficient number of slats to provide adequate support and prevent the mattress from sagging.  If you are aiming to use the futon sofa more like a bed and less as a functioning sofa, consider one that either has no arms or has removable arms. This style will feel more like a regular bed and less like a child’s crib with the sides raised.

Futon sofa beds also offer a number of different settings. In addition to sitting and sleeping, many futons are adjustable in set increments to allow for reclining. Additionally, ensure that the futon fits into the space allocated for it yet is also suitable for the individual using it. People accustomed to sleeping on a king size mattress will not be very comfortable on a futon that opens up to the size of an army cot.


A futon sofa bed should very easily convert from a futon mattress into a futon couch within seconds. That being said, some can be finicky or downright difficult for the average person to maneuver which to me defeats the whole convenience of having a futon couch in the first place. Thus, if you’re able to view one in a local store, try converting it from bed to sofa and vice versa; if it doesn’t convert easily, move on to another model that does.  The last thing a tired person needs at the end of a long day is to struggle with a recalcitrant futon. Also, regarding placement, ensure the futon has plenty of clearance from the wall or that the futon is designed to pull away from the wall to prevent any accidental damage from occurring.

Lastly, if storage space is at a premium, look for a futon couch that has built-in storage compartments. Many futon sofas are adroit at concealing additional storage with compartments or magazine racks in the armrests and sometimes even under the sofa.

What Every Business Owner Needs To Know About Video Marketing

Many business owners find video marketing a vital activity for reaching new customers. People enjoy videos, so they make a great way to stay in touch with customers. Use the following advice and start your video marketing campaign today.

TIP! Your best bet for creating a successful video clip is to aim for short and sweet. By keeping your videos short, people can quickly find the information they are looking for.

The key to a successful marketing video is to be brief and make your point known. The normal person’s span of attention is minimal. They want instant gratification when looking for information. If you do have to make a longer video, break it up into separate sections, which is easier to digest for the viewer.

Video marketing allows you to reach your audience in a very real way. Get customers to submit any questions they have concerning your products or industry and answer them in video form. You should try giving away some freebees to customers that ask questions.

TIP! Most people will not want to watch videos that are more than 20 minutes long. If you’re showing off a product and how to use it, it can take you over 20 minutes, and that is no problem.

Offer the best content you can in order to make your videos catch on. It’s not about expensive equipment. People are happy to watch something if it contains information which is relevant and important to their lives. Still, you want to buy the best camera you can afford.

Don’t expect people to devote a lot of time to watching your videos. You can go that long only if you’re doing a very in-depth how-to video. However, if you’re just advertising or keeping them up to speed, then your videos should be no longer than ten minutes.

TIP! Spending a lot of money and time on a video does not mean it will yield better results. Spending a lot on your video does not necessarily result in a good return from your investment.

You need not feel like you have to hire professionals to make a decent video for your business. You do not need a professional camera if your picture is clear and you use a tripod to prevent the camera from shaking. There is probably no need to develop a formal script, either. Relax, talk to the camera and edit what you do not need in your video, later. If you do not want to be in the video, there are other options. For example, you can use PowerPoint presentation or screen captures for your videos.

If people have a hard time using one of your products, make a video showing them how things should be done. You’ll not only be solving the problems of those who already have your product, but you will also entice new customers to buy as they’ll know their problems will always be fully resolved.

TIP! Video marketing is a great way to show people how to use a product you are promoting. How-tos are one great way to use videos to your advantage.

Take a video camera with you if you are visiting a public event such as a convention or trade show. You may get a chance to conduct some expert interviews or just shoot footage of the event itself. You will want someone to tape any speeches you give.

If you are making a video, you should ask your audience to do something. Some refer to this as a “call to action.” As an example, if you’d like your viewers to subscribe to a newsletter, request that they click a link provided in the description of the video. For this to work, you must make it easy for your viewers.

TIP! You only have a short time to capture your audience’s attention in video marketing. The first 10 to 15 seconds is the most crucial.

Provide fresh, interesting content on a regular basis to keep viewers coming back. Boring content does nothing except repel viewers, and that is not good for business. Keep viewers interested to see what’s next. As content gets more interesting, more viewers will be attracted to it.

Remember to write a greeting and a closing into your video script. Information to always include is who you are, your business name and the video topic. Finally, say the name of the company one more time – don’t forget your call to action!

TIP! Don’t assume you need glitzy, high-tech scenery and fancy special effects to make a persuasive video. As long as your video is focused and well-balanced, you can use standard equipment.

Use video marketing to give potential customers a more personal look at your business. Make a funny video about what goes on in your office. People will like to see that there’s a more personal side to the business you run.

You cannot just put videos online and think they’ll go viral overnight. It is up to you to use social networking and any others channels you have to promote it. People need to know that your video exists to watch it.

TIP! Your content needs to be interesting. As you create a video, make certain that it is relevant, timely and engaging.

If you decide to post a video onto YouTube, you need to be moderating the comments. A lot of viewers base their opinions on the comments of others, and seeing lots of negative or offensive comments could be disastrous for your campaign. If you don’t want to spend your time moderating comments, you may want to disable them altogether.

Host a video contest to have more videos on your site. This could be anything from doing something funny or telling a joke to doing a serious demo or how-to video. User videos are wonderful ways for you and your viewers to get to know each other.

TIP! Find the tone that you want for your videos and stick with it. Various types of videos can be effective, whether they are how-to videos or videos that are humorous.

It’s a good idea to post a short video that discusses the background of your business. Talk about what products or services you’re selling and why your viewers should register for your mailing list. Offer a free incentive, like a report or an eBook, in exchange. When you make the site more personal, your sales pitch will be trusted more.

If you do not want to appear in your video, try doing a voice over. Perhaps you have been thinking of putting out a video, but you don’t want to be featured. You might just want to show off the product and then talk over it. Record your voice to be played as the video plays.

TIP! Always carry a video camera when attending trade shows, conventions or other industry events. You will most likely get the opportunity to speak to experts or document your experience.

If you are filming a video clip in your non-native language, invest in the skills of an experienced translator. Do not rely on an online translator if you want to address a foreign audience since these programs make a lot of mistakes and will not recognize idiomatic expressions. If your videos are well-done and use appropriate cultural references and verbiage, you are sure to win customers’ respect.

Video Marketing

TIP! If you aren’t good at videos, recruit outside help. Promote a contest where the winners receive gift certificates.

You know more about video marketing now, so you’ve got to make some videos! Don’t quit after reading these tips, however. There are lots of things you can still learn about this form of marketing. A little research will ensure that your video marketing efforts succeed.

Learn About The Power Of Social Media Marketing

If you want to advertise any business online, particularly yours, social media marketing is the tool that you must use. Many business people do not know how to promote themselves, select a target audience or get the most out of their money when it comes to marketing. With the tips below, you can learn to do what it takes to be successful with social media marketing.

Think twice about paying for a professional social media marketing service. Media companies of this nature are often scam operations out to bilk novice marketing businesses. These companies use proxy servers and registration bots to create thousands of accounts on Twitter, YouTube and Facebook. You will not have customers seeing your marketing though you are shown high view counts. Basically, the only thing you will be doing is spending money for false results.

TIP! Give your visitors the ability to retweet on your blog. This will make it easier for your readers to Tweet about your blog.

Twitter is a very useful tool for business promotion. Once you understand how it works, you will see the potential for hundreds, or even many thousands, of new customers. Research the tools provided by Twitter, including keywords and hashtags.

Keep your blog entries fresh and exciting to entice your readers. When your content is fresh and readers know when to expect new topics, they will return often to check out the new content. This is why so many people like newspapers and magazines. Be consistent to keep people coming back.

To boost your social media marketing, place a social media widget on your website. Putting a widget on your site is the way to glean followers for your site. In addition, widgets let your readers re-tweet your content instead of having to visit another site to do it.

TIP! Think about what kind of relationship you want with your customers. Keep your messages simple if you want to be successful and increase sales with social media marketing.

You should offer discounts and coupon codes to the people who connect with you on social networks. Encourage them with something they won’t be able to get from someone else. For instance, running a prize drawing for your followers will always generate positive responses. If that is not doable, you might want to give them a special offer. You can make important announcements about your business on social media sites as well.

Decide if a relationship with your customers is what you want. For building up sales, keep bells and whistles to a minimum, and use social media for advertisements. If you actually want to build a loyal customer base who repeatedly comes back and buys from you, you’ll have to begin the conversation with them by introducing yourself. Your customers will let you know where to go from there.

Your social media site needs to have fresh content posted on a regular basis. Your customers may expect regular updates. If you don’t provide these, you may find yourself losing customers. Do your best to update several times a week.

Social Network

Always ensure that your social network pages have new information and posts. Most social network users expect updates as often as possible, and if you do not provide them with it, you could give yourself a bad name and lose many customers. Make an effort to provide updates several times per week.

Try to interact with customers as frequently as you can. In some circumstances, it may be helpful to comment on their blog posting or current Facebook status. This does not mean jumping in on a personal exchange, but it should be aimed at issues that are relevant to your product or service.

TIP! There are a few things to consider before you actually market on various social media networks. Every social network is different and learning what makes them different can help you use each one properly.

Writing as a guest blogger on a popular site in your industry or hosting an expert on your blog are both powerful strategies. Either way, you can generate more traffic. When guest blogging somewhere else, make sure they let you link back to a website of your own. You should return this courtesy when someone blogs for your site, of course. The followers of that blogger will be more likely to seek info about your site.

Building your presence on social media networks requires patience. You will need to slowly build a following, so don’t expect massive results overnight. Some people have gained 10,000 followers within 24 hours, but it’s quite uncommon. Profiles seldom go viral instantly. Be patient and in time, followers will come to you.

While social networking sites generally adopt a very casual tone, you should nonetheless manage your page with professional and respectful content. Make a personal introduction, but maintain an air of professionalism. If there are arguments, simply delete them or any other negative remarks. Don’t use your business page to catch up with friends and family. Create another profile for this purpose.

Social Media

In your website content, mention your social media efforts. Write an article and link to it from Twitter, for example. You’ll reach thousands of eyeballs. Be certain to express gratitude towards those that pay attention to your efforts, and be open about discussing your social media experiences. This sort of article must quickly be shared.

Be flexible when it comes to keeping your page updated. If you are in the midst of a product launch, your followers will expect you to update many times per day. If you are having a hard time coming up with new content, slow down and take the time to write quality articles.

TIP! Social media marketing is an excellent method of generating more interest in someone’s business. If people start to share comments and review about your business on social media sites, this can be of great benefit to you.

Only buy online ads that offer you good visibility. If your ad is not highly visible and accessible, then the traffic and interest it will generate will be weak as a result.

Social media profiles are great for getting people to visit your store or getting them to buy your items. Offer relevant information about upcoming sales promotions or grand openings. Provide printable coupons or limited offers only available to Facebook followers. Generally, there must be some incentive for people to add you or subscribe to you on Facebook.

If you are thinking of creating a Facebook page for your business, take the time to research what other similar businesses are doing with their pages. Steal their ideas, and abandon any unsuccessful strategies. Make sure you page is appealing and unique.

TIP! Make a profile on Twitter and Facebook, and be sure to use your business name. This prevents another business with a similar name or someone with an axe to grind for registering those accounts and causing confusion or ill will.

To have the best mode of contact on social networking websites, you must be able to talk to your customers on a person to person basis. Customers do not enjoy communicating with a large, anonymous entity. When customers feel they are having a direct, personal conversation, they instinctively feel more connected with the company.

When you begin social media networking, patience is of the essence. People need to have faith in you and what you are offering them. Take a deep breath and attempt to gain your followers trust one at a time. If you can do this correctly, it won’t take long until you have an entire database of customers.

Be selective about what you post on Facebook, making sure that it packs a punch while creating interest. Don’t share everything just for the sake of sharing something. Share exciting, factual and interesting information. Make sure anything you do pass on is really something they are interested in hearing about. Keep away from silly surveys or quizzes; they have little to no value for your consumers.

Social Media

Ask your customers to fill in a survey about social networks. If they’re spending more than 1 hour per day on social media then it is time for you to get in on that action! If you find that your customers aren’t using social media, register your usernames but don’t bother investing any time in building your accounts yet.

To get good reaction to your social media marketing, have your content be humorous whenever possible and appropriate. When people see unusual or humorous things on Facebook, it is likely they will share these things with their friends. That can be an easy way to get free advertising.

TIP! A great means for marketing your business is to make videos to upload to YouTube. One way to get the most out of YouTube is to video blog about your different products and what goes on behind the scenes at your business.

Social media sites are excellent for announcing promotions or publicizing discounts and specials. When users are able to access a lot of good content and use valuable discounts, they will want to seek you out on Facebook. Use social networking to learn more about your target market, including their wants, needs and perceptions of your brand.

Social Media

If you feel stumped about your next topic, solicit opinions. Your customers could choose between different topics, or share suggestions by commenting. Use the information that you discover from the poll.

TIP! Add in as many keywords as possible to get people using search engines to find your social media account. You need to direct people to one of your own sites.

Branding your company on social media is of critical importance. On any of your profile pages, make sure you have your company logo used as either your profile picture, or as the background. Choose one color scheme and implement it across your website and social media accounts. When followers see similarities on your account pages, they’ll feel confident it’s really you and will be willing to trust what you have to say. There will be benefits for being consistent and utilizing branding strategies.

The information that you have just read should lead you to feel more confident in your ability to develop a powerful social media marketing strategy. Keep in mind, a social marketing campaign that works can give your business a tremendous boost of visibility online, which in turn will lead to an increase in brand recognition and profits.

If you were to hold different contests on your social media sites, you could build up your followers fairly quickly. To do this, you would want to require that a user has to enter their email or like your content, etc, in order to enter into the contest. You’d be surprised how many people do this. Even if the prize is small, you’ll see your followers skyrocket, and most of them will stick around after the contest has concluded.

Deep learning automatic front-end development: 5 seconds from sketch to HTML

With people’s continuous exploration, the method of “using artificial intelligence to automatically generate web pages” has become more and more practical. The convolutional neural network named SketchCode introduced in this article can directly translate the design sketches of the website’s graphical user interface into lines of code, sharing some of the design flow for front-end developers. At present, the model’s BLEU score has reached 0.76 after training.
You can find the code for this project on GitHub:

Creating an intuitive, attractive website for users is an important goal for companies, and it is a process of rapid prototyping, design, and user testing. Large companies like Facebook have the manpower to keep the entire team focused on the design process. Changes may take several weeks and involve multiple stakeholders. Small businesses do not have such resources, so their user interface may be affected by influences.

My goal in Insight was to use modern deep learning algorithms to greatly simplify the design workflow and enable companies of any size to quickly create and test web pages.

Existing design workflow

Existing workflow involves multiple stakeholders

A typical design workflow is as follows:

Product Manager conducts user studies to develop technical parameter tables

The designer will accept these requirements and try to create a low-fidelity prototype that will eventually create a high-fidelity prototype

Engineers translate these designs into code and eventually deliver the product to users

The length of the development cycle quickly becomes a bottleneck, and companies like Airbnb have begun to use machine learning to increase the efficiency of this process. (See:

Airbnb Internal AI Tool Demo: From Sketch to Code

Although this tool is promising as an example of machine-aided design, it is unclear to what extent this model can be fully trained end-to-end, and it is not clear to what extent it depends on hand-made image features. This is definitely not possible because it is still Airbnb’s proprietary non-open source solution. I want to create an open source version of the “from drawing to code” technology that is available to more developers and designers.

Ideally, my model could use a simple web design hand-drawn prototype and immediately generate a usable HTML site from that image:

SketchCode model needs to draw a good website wireframe and generate HTML code

In fact, the above example is an actual website generated from my model test set image! You can view it on my Github page:

Inspiration from image annotation

The problem I am working on is in the general task category of program synthesis (, which is the automatic generation of work source code. Although a lot of program synthesis can handle code generated from natural language requirements or execution trajectories, in my case I could start with a source image (a hand-drawn wireframe) and automatically get the code I wanted.

In the field of machine learning, there is a field called image subtitle generation (, which has ample research to learn the model that connects images and texts. In particular, generate a description of the source picture content.

The image annotation model generates a description of the source image

I got inspired by a recent paper called pix2code and a related project by Emil Wallner using this method (see: Front-end panic? Automatically generate HTML code with deep learning), and decided to refactor my task into image subtitles As part of the problem generation, the wireframe is used as the input image and the corresponding HTML code is used as the output text.

Get the correct data set

Taking into account the method of image annotation, my ideal training data set is the equivalent of thousands of pairs of hand-drawn wireframes and their HTML code. As expected, I couldn’t find this dataset, so I had to create my own data for this task.

I started with an open source data set ( mentioned in the pix2code article, which consists of 1750 artificially generated web screenshots and their corresponding source code.

Website image generated in pix2code and its source code data set

This data set is a good start for me and there are some interesting things:

Each generated site in the dataset contains several simple Bootstrap elements such as buttons, text boxes, and DIVs. Although this means that my model will be limited by the use of these elements as “vocabulary” (the model can be used to generate elements for the site), this approach should be easily generalized to the larger elemental vocabulary.

The source code for each example contains domain-specific language (DSL) tags created by the author of the paper. Each tag corresponds to a snippet of HTML and CSS, and there is a compiler that translates the DSL into working HTML code.

Make the picture more like a hand-painted

Switch the website’s colorful theme to a hand-written theme.

In order to adjust the data set to suit my task, I had to make the site’s picture as hand-painted. The hand-painted pictures benefit from the grayscale conversion and contour detection functions of the OpenCV and PIL libraries.

In the end, I decided to directly modify the original site’s CSS stylesheet through a series of actions:

Facilitate the rounding of buttons and divs by changing the border radius of the page element

Adjust the thickness of the border to mimic a hand-drawn sketch and add a shadow

Change the font to type handwriting

My final version added one more step to data enhancement by adding tilt, offset, and rotation to mimic the uncertainty of the sketch actually drawn.

Using image annotation model architecture

Now that I have my data ready, I can put it into the model for training!

The model I use for image annotation includes three main parts:

A Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) Visual Model for Extracting Source Picture Features

A language model consisting of a gating cycle unit (GRU) that encodes a sequence of source codes

A decoder model (also a GRU) that takes the output of the previous two steps as input and predicts the next token in the sequence

Train the model using the marker sequence as input

In order to train this model, I divided the source code into tag sequences. One of the sequences and its source image is a single input to the model, and its label is the next mark in the document. The model uses the cross-entropy cost as its loss function to compare the next marker predicted by the model with the actual marker.

In the reasoning stage where the model generates code from scratch, the process is slightly different. The image is still processed through the CNN network, but text processing only provides a starting sequence. At each step, the model predicts the next marker in the sequence, which is returned to the current input sequence and is entered into the model as a new input sequence. Repeat this until the model predicts that the <END> tag or process reaches the predefined upper limit of the number of tags per document.

Once a set of predictor tags is generated from the model, the compiler converts the DSL tags to HTML, which can be displayed in any browser.

Use the BLEU score assessment model

I decided to use the BLEU score ( to evaluate the model. This is an evaluation criterion that is often used in machine translation tasks. It attempts to evaluate the degree of similarity between machine-generated text and human-written text given the same input.

In essence, BLEU generates fine-tuned text by comparing the n-meta sequence of generated text and reference text. It is very suitable for this project because it will affect the actual elements in the generated HTML, as well as the interrelationship between them.

Then this is the best – I can understand the BLEU score by checking the generated website!

BLEU score visualization

A perfect 1.0 BLEU score will generate the correct elements of the source image in the right place, while lower scores can predict the wrong elements and/or put them in the wrong position relative to each other. In the end my model was able to get a 0.76 BLEU score on the test set.

Benefits – Custom Style

One additional benefit I perceive is that since the model only generates the skeleton of the page (the mark of the document), I can add a custom CSS layer during the compilation process and instantly see the different styles of the site.

One conversion => generate multiple styles at the same time

Separating the style from the model generation process brings many benefits to the usage model:

Front-end engineers who want to apply the SketchCode model to their own company’s products can use the model as-is, just change a CSS file to meet their company’s style requirements

Scalability is built in – Using a source image, the model output can be immediately compiled into 5, 10, or 50 different predefined styles, so users can see multiple versions of their site and navigate through them in a browser

Summary and outlook

By leveraging the results of image annotation research, SketchCode can convert hand-drawn website wireframes into usable HTML sites in seconds.

The model has some limitations, probably including the following:

Since this model is trained with a vocabulary of only 16 elements, it cannot predict markers other than training data. The next step may be to use additional elements (such as images, drop-down menus, and forms) to generate other sample sites – Bootstrap components is a good site to practice with:

There are many changes to the website in the actual production environment. A good way to create a training dataset that better reflects this change is to take a screenshot of the actual website and capture their HTML/CSS code and website content.

Hand-drawn sketches also have a lot of changes, and the CSS modification skills have not been fully learned by the model. A good way to generate more variations on hand-drawn sketches is to use creation against network to create realistically drawn website images

I am looking forward to seeing the further development of the project!